to the aorta. There is certain kind of force, generated by the cardiac muscles contracting. But, if there is any leakage in any of the chambers, the blood tends to pass through these defects and the forward pumping is lowered or tends to fail in the long run. Septal defect is one of the problems in the heart, caused by congenital defect of the closure of the septum in between the atrium and ventricles.
There are two kinds of septal defects seen in the congenital disease spectrum, namely the atrial septal defect and ventricle septal defect. Atrial septal defect can be seen between the left and right atrial chambers, while the defective hole in the septum between right and left ventricles is seen to cause ventricular septal defect. Depending on the size of these defects, there may be spontaneous closure of the septal walls, or the defects may lead to impaired blood circulation in the heart chambers. For large sized holes, there will be progression into severe heart failure, primarily due to lack of enough force during pumping of the blood. Gradually, there will be manifestations of poor feeding and poor weight gain, ultimately requiring surgical correction in form of ASD/VSD closure.
The closure of the septal defects in the ventricles and atrium is done by open heart surgery, where primarily the defects are closed using mesh, small patches made from materials like that of the pericardium. Use of this kind of surgical procedure is safe and also effective in closing the defect, thereby allowing the patients with septal defect to have normal life. The same procedures are adopted in both atrial and ventricular septal defects, while keeping the heart and lungs work through the HLM.
The open heart surgery procedure to close the atrial and ventricular septal defect is needed because such defects may not be compatible with proper heart functions. The oxygen rich blood from the left side of the heart may flow into the right side ventricle, so that the blood reaching to the different organs of the body will be deficient or poor in oxygen supply. In VSD, such issues can be quite well marked, as the pumping effect to the lungs and to other parts of the body through aorta is seen with ventricles. For atrial septal defect, this may not be much of a problem, especially if the defect is a small one.
Inability of the developing heart to fuse completely, results in the remaining of a small gap, which allows the blood from one chamber to move to the other and vice versa. Usually, the septum in between the atria is closed soon after the lungs start functioning. But, sometimes the defect is persisting, whereby there is exchange of blood. Apart from natural non-closure of the defects, this kind of ASD or VSD is seen coexisting with other syndromes like Down's, fetal alcohol, Holt-Oram and few others.
Particularly for the ASD, there may be lung problems in the long run, if the defect is not closed. More amount of blood can pass through the lungs in such conditions, thereby leading to more pressure in the pulmonary vessels. So, majority of the problems with the atrial defect are concerned with lung symptoms. In the VSD, the same problem can also arise as left ventricle blood is passed into the right ventricle and the flow is further towards the pulmonary vessels. Also, in the latter, there is mixing of the deoxygenated blood, which may reach the organs thereby putting pressure on the lungs and various other organ systems. In some people, such defects can be compatible with life to a good extent, but if the symptoms of ASD and VSD begin to show in the normal day to day activities, it becomes necessary to go for ASD/VSD closure.
Due to the large scale development of cardiac surgeries in India, with good quality equipments, prosthetics and other facilities, and the improved skills of the cardiologists, patients are nowadays choosing to get operated for septal defects in India itself, rather than selecting other foreign countries for difficult surgeries. Even though ASD/VSD closure is supposedly quite a common process in the country, Indian hospitals utilise the more secure and safer procedure of open heart surgery.
If people are aiming to get their children operated for ASD/VSD closure, they should consult with the cardiologists in the Indian hospitals, where cardiac surgery facilities are available. After thorough diagnostic procedures, the operating doctor can very well tell about the prognostic implications and the manner in which the surgical approach can be done. For larger defects, the closure is done and even after the operation is finished, the cardiologist evaluates the child periodically for proper functioning of the heart.
Sometimes, medical management of ASD or VSD can be done in Indian hospitals. But, if the drugs are not able to close the defects, it is best to go for the surgeries of ASD/VSD closure in Indian hospitals, which is done by open heart surgery and also supposed to be durable. With the closure done, patients are able to lead normal life for long years, without any further issues. The operation is done under general anaesthesia.
Going to Indian hospitals is a good option for people in India because the success rate for ASD/VSD closure is quite high. The operations are done in the most septic manner and recovery rate is also quite good. Parents of children with such defects will not have to spend huge bucks, because Indian hospitals usually tend to carry out such procedures within reasonable amounts. There is also the possibility of repairing the defects with Cardiac catheterization. A septal occluder is put into the defect, through the blood vessels, which will be highly safe and without much problems. For small defects, such an option can be chosen, but for larger ASD/VSD closure the open heart surgery would be the best options in the Indian hospitals.