valves by open heart surgery. The Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement or Implantation or TAVR or TAVI is the newest modality of surgery for severe cases of aortic stenosis.
In stenosis, there is narrowing of the valve so that the blood output is very much reduced, consequent to which there is less passage of blood through these valves into the systemic circulation. Gradually, as the age increases, the stenosis becomes severe and warrants the replacement of the valve. This process of TAVI has helped plenty of people with single cases of aortic stenosis or in combination with variety of other conditions of the heart, so that either open heart surgery is required or the valve is simply replaced by passing a tube through the blood vessels and accessing the aortic valve region. If there is need to replace the aortic valves only, it will be of benefit for the patients to go for TAVI, and not subject them unnecessarily to open heart surgeries.
Aortic stenosis is a condition of the heart, which is usually progressive and leads to left ventricular hypertrophy as well as heart failure if there are other conditions involved. In some people, where many other heart defects superimpose, the failure sets in early, thereby necessitating the removal of the stenosed valves and replacing it with prosthetic valves. While medical treatment can be initiated at the beginning of such conditions, the stenosis will keep on progressing and lead to full-fledged heart failure, thereby making the TAVI in Indian hospitals very much necessary.
TAVI or transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a kind of surgery, without opening the heart and mediastinal cavity to place an artificial valve in the place of the older aortic valve, whose leaflets have become stenosed. In this kind of surgery, there is a system of valve over valve, where the collapsible replacement valve is pushed through a catheter into the aortic valve site and allowed to open up. As a result, the stenosed valvular leaflets are pushed aside and the new prosthetic valve gets active for controlling the flow of blood.
With the help of TAVI, the stenosed valve is easily replaced in symptomatic patients and in those where open heart surgery is not possible and there are no other co-morbidities and other heart diseases. Patients who are fit to be subjected to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Indian hospitals are having their aortic valves almost destroyed with buildup of calcium on the aortic valve's leaflets. This impairs the ability of the valve to allow unidirectional flow, and also hampers the free flow of blood in sufficient amounts to the systemic circulation. Hence, there are symptoms of aortic stenosis related mostly to lack of oxygen rich blood to brain and other parts of the body. This mandates the process of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation for proper maintenance of patency of the blood vessels. In such situations, the Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation can be quite helpful for people, and also suitable to be performed in all age groups.
TAVI or Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation is a process in which an artificial prosthetic valve is passed through a tube by incision on a large vein of the leg or thigh, such as the femoral artery or a large artery in the chest. There are few other places from which the catheter is passed, reaching the aorta and releasing the prosthetic valve in the place of the stenosed aortic valve. Hence, the old valve is compressed and the replacement fits into place and acts as a normal valve. In this method of TAVI, patients undergo quick recovery and short hospital stay. They can start their day to day functions without much delay. It is also of benefit for debilitated patients, mostly in their 70s and 80s, because they are not suitable to undergo the open heart surgery methods. Besides, TAVI is also suitable for patients with only aortic stenosis and where no other condition can be benefited if the chest cavity is opened. With this surgery, patients are less prone for any side effects that are seen when the heart placed chest cavity is opened up. In the long run also, aortic valve replacement by this process of catheterisation is quite successful and helps people with better recovery potential.
In Indian cardiac centres, there are plenty of surgeries being done these days. These surgeries range from simple relief of obstruction to replacement of various vessels and valves. Many of the methods have undergone huge changes in the recent times, because of improved skills and better equipments in the hands of the doctors. Cardiologists are also getting trained from various institutes and utilising these techniques in the Indian cardiac centres. So, when there is need to have aortic replacement for problems of aortic stenosis, it would be wiser for people to go for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation because of low cost of the process, better prognostic implications and improved post operative care.
In most of the Indian hospitals, there is the facility of cardiac Intensive Care Units as well as good post operative diagnosis, which leads to proper care after the operation. Many people can also afford the surgeries for aortic stenosis, especially the ones done through transcatheter process. Hence, it would be advisable for people with children having aortic stenosis or patients of any age group to consult with Indian cardiologists to pick up the health care institutions in India for satisfying and effective solutions for their aortic valve implantation.