function properly. While some of these conditions like valvular absence requires very specific surgeries, conduit replacement and repair is done in India for variety of these congenital heart diseases.
This may not be highly specific treatment, but the making of a conduit allows for the passage of blood through the heart, into it and out of it, in a very smooth manner. Consequently, conduit repairs and replacements can be highly favourable for the life of the patients. In some cases of congenital heart diseases, this kind of repair is done as a palliative measure. This means that there are passageways done to make sure that the blood reaches the intended part of the body, especially the heart and lungs. For this reason, the conduits are designed for variety of valves and blood vessels, whereby the blood flow through large vessels and heart chambers can be maintained and the underlying problems related to the heart can be solved.
Surgically implanted conduits in India can last for quite a long time, usually for a period of about 10-20 years, after which there may be issues of blockage, or become inefficient. Conduits are usually designed and derived from envelope of the heart, or from blood vessels or from the arteries and veins of animals. In Indian hospitals, conduit replacement or repair is done with the finest and best quality materials, which can remain patent and serve their purposes for long time to come. Hence, after being treated with such surgical procedures, many congenital conditions of the heart can be varied in their course of progression. Apart from being the primary surgical procedure in some cases, it is also used for additional surgery in different kinds of palliative treatments. Besides the use of conduits, there are artificial valves and replacements, which are also being done either in separation or with the conduits for a fulfilling blood flow.
Since the conduit replacement and repair in India is being done for variety of causes, the children and patients with congenital heart diseases are properly checked and the problem is identified. During the investigations, the points at which the conduit replacement is required, are sorted and the necessary steps are taken. Hence, the first step would be to identify the necessary places where the defect is seen. Also, it is necessary to arrange the artificial materials, with which the conduit replacement/repair is to be carried out. Nowadays, Indian hospitals are keeping variety of such materials, which can be arranged as per the requirements of the patients. The usual types of materials are cadaver valved tissue or homograft, goretex, porcine valve, and valved bovine jugular vein. Due to sufficient numbers of these valves and blood vessels being available for the conduits, these have also become quite affordable for people.
Before the start of the operation for conduit replacement/repair, the patient is kept on cardiopulmonary bypass system of heart-lung machine, which is a kind of artificial alignment of the blood to pass through heart and lungs.
Various conditions require the conduit replacement/repair and in Indian hospitals, it is possible to carry out such procedures in variety of situations.
In the condition of absent pulmonary valve repair, there is the need to put in prosthetic valve at the outlet of the right ventricle, so that there is proper pumping of the blood into the pulmonary artery. Most of such valve replacements are kind of conduits, which have very good response and surgical results.
Another scenario in which valve replacement and conduit repair is done is that in case of aortic stenosis. It is one of the commonest cases in cardiac surgeries in India, with good success rate in Indian hospitals. Sometimes, there is artificial prosthetic valve and outlet required to be done with the help of proper materials, which is also known as Konno procedure.
In Ross procedure for aortic stenosis, valve replacement is necessary. The conduit in this procedure is put in place of the pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery to maintain their patency and connectivity to the lungs.
For double outlet right ventricle, Rastelli operation is done. In this process, artificial conduit is connected from pulmonary artery to the right ventricle, which is usually the case for single ventricle.
Some other conditions in which the conduit replacement/repair is done in Indian hospitals and cardiology set ups are the extracardiac fontan operation, Marfan's syndrome leading up to aortic swelling and dissection, mitral valve replacement, in tetralogy of Falot and truncus arteriosus repair.
For most of the congenital heart diseases, Indian cardiac centres and many government and corporate hospitals have the necessary resources to add to the patient's benefit by undertaking conduit replacement and repair. As per the patient condition and requirement in surgeries, the conduit or valve is necessary to be juxtaposed in the heart. With trained staff in form of cardiothoracic surgeons, cardiac anaesthetists, sister and operation theatres, the operation of fitting conduits can be very easily done in Indian hospitals, and at low costs. Moreover, the patients from outside the country are also coming for their treatment, because it helps in getting good quality surgery, pre and post operative care and at reasonable costs.
In Indian hospitals, where cardiology unit is well maintained, many people arrive in these set ups to enquire about the costs and the process of operation. Cardiologists employ their skills to first diagnose the conditions and then plan their surgeries accordingly. This is one of the most essential reasons as well as an advantage for the kids because their congenital heart disease can be easily relieved by use of conduit replacement/repair in Indian hospitals.