conditions. In some patients, there is right sided heart blockage, in form of pulmonary stenosis or pulmonary atresia. Few cardiologists and heart surgeons have utilised the BT shunt for treating tetralogy of Fallot and similarly based cyanotic heart diseases.
On the similar line of treatment, BD Glenn is also a palliative care surgery being done in many of the Indian hospitals, which aim at giving the right flow of blood into the pulmonary vessels. Although this step was introduced in the later part of the 20th century, it has become a major procedure for palliative surgeries and for removing any lack in the proper surgeries to be scheduled for later. BT shunt & BD Glenn in Indian cardiology hospitals is performed by many cardiac surgeons, because it will help of bypass cardiopulmonary, so that the patient is having functional blood and respiratory system. Although these processes are done by open heart surgery, it is essential to ensure that the pre and post operative care is taken properly. Patients are usually of different age group, because in some of the cyanotic heart diseases, the life can go on for number of years, while there are options of conducting BT shunt & BD Glenn in children in Indian hospitals.
In infants usually, the bidirectional Glenn or BD Glenn is performed. They are usually below 2 years, where the lung vessel resistance is quite high. Sometimes, it is also required if the pulmonary arteries are also abnormal. Some cardiac surgeons in India are doing this surgery in children within the age limits of 3 months to 6 months. To a great extent, it relieves the symptoms and also doesn't necessitate the operative procedure of Fontan surgery. There is a vast improvement in the symptoms in BD Glenn and BT Shunt, when done under proper guidance and by the expert surgeons in India.
Single Ventricle - BT shunt
Single Ventricle - Bidirectional Glenn
Single Ventricle - completed Fontan
Creating a connection between the systemic artery and pulmonary artery is known as the systemic to pulmonary artery shunt or more commonly the BT shunt. This is named after the scientists or rather cardiologists, who had devised the procedure. Initially, the BT shunt process was first done on a cyanotic heart disease child, to divert the blood flow into pulmonary artery and thence to the lungs. There are a number of steps required for anastomosing the vessels in the region of the neck and near to the heart, which helps in shunting the blood. Since many years, the BT shunt operation had been performed in cases of tetralogy of Fallot and in other congenital cyanotic diseases. In some Indian cardiology centres, the BT shunt and BD Glenn operations are done as a means of palliative care for different congenital heart conditions.
BD Glenn is a procedure in which surgical superior vena cava is joined to the right pulmonary artery thereby allowing the blood to bypass defective ventricles in the right side and reach the lungs directly to be oxygenated. It is also known as procedure, which is done in various congenital heart defects, an important name of this being Fontan Procedure. Presently, many of the right sided heart defects are treated surgically by bidirectional Glenn shunt or the BD Glenn, which is being done in some of the Indian hospitals. So, for the congenital heart conditions, a number of palliative care and shunting methods are being utilised in Indian hospitals to repair usually the right sided heart defects under the category of congenital heart diseases with cyanosis.
Since the procedure of BT shunt and BD Glenn in Indian cardiology set ups is carried out by redirecting the blood supply from the right side of the heart to the lungs directly, it serves the important purpose of oxygenating the blood. This is an important work done by the cardiac surgeons, where palliative treatment is pretty easy. Being less difficult and excruciating than Fontan, these two methods of diverting the blood flow towards the lungs can be considered to be very beneficial for the patients. Lots of symptoms of dysfunctional right ventricle or single right ventricle can be solved by undertaking these simple shunting processes in quick time. For the patients with cyanotic heart diseases, it helps in improving oxygen saturation and reduces volume load on the single ventricle, thereby providing much relief with respect to the pre-operative condition. Also, BT shunt & BD Glenn procedures are supposed to act as low pressure shunts, or bypasses, so that people will not have their lung vessels thickened or unduly pressurised. In many ways, these shunting processes are supposed to be quite superior in terms of their benefits for the patients.
There are many patients in India, who want to be treated in the existing set up and cannot afford high cost healthcare. For such needy patients, Indian hospitals are increasingly having cardiac set ups, which will allow them to get standard treatment. In many of the hospitals, congenital heart disease conditions are to be treated without much expense and with best quality health care objectives. Cardiac surgeons are performing BT shunt & BD Glenn procedures in Indian hospitals, so that many patients are getting benefited out of it. Overall, the costs of surgery will be clearly less than when done in foreign countries. Furthermore, there are some hospitals in India, where pro bono work is being done and this ensures that patients with cyanotic congenital heart diseases can easily work out the procedures for their long term benefits with such shunting processes.